Family instability is becoming more prevalent globally. Impact of Parental Divorce has affected a growing number of children, leading to potential consequences.
The prevalence of alternatives to traditional marriage, such as cohabitation, is highest in Western countries like Australia and New Zealand, and is growing in industrializing regions of Asia. Cohabitation, while more unstable than marriage, is particularly widespread in Northern and Western Europe, leading to lower rates of divorce but not necessarily reducing the prevalence of single-parent households.
The United States has been at the forefront of family change, experiencing a significant rise in divorce starting in the late 1960s, followed by a surge in non-marital births with or without cohabitation. Other Western countries saw a similar increase in divorce rates a decade or two later, while industrializing Asian countries are currently undergoing similar changes. As of today, only about 60% of children in the US reside with their married, biological parents, which is one of the lowest rates in the world, surpassed only by Latvia.
Studies have shown that parental divorce or separation is linked to a greater likelihood of adjustment issues among children and adolescents, such as academic struggles (e.g., lower grades and dropping out of school), behavioral problems (e.g., substance abuse and conduct disorders), and depressive symptoms.
Children of divorced or separated parents are also at higher risk for engaging in risky sexual behavior, living in poverty, and experiencing their own family instability. The risk of these outcomes typically increases by a factor of 1.5 to 2.
Despite the increased risk of negative outcomes, the majority of children whose parents divorce demonstrate resilience and do not exhibit significant psychological problems. However, it is crucial to acknowledge that even resilient children from divorced families may experience painful emotions or situations, such as feeling anxious about events where both parents will be present, like graduations or weddings.
Several factors associated with an increased risk of negative outcomes, such as lower income and parental conflict, are linked with non-random selection into family stability or are consequences of family break-up. To mitigate the potential impact of these confounding factors, researchers have employed various methods, such as measuring covariates and using designs like children-of-twin studies that account for unmeasured environmental and genetic factors that may affect both generations. While controlling for these confounds can reduce the risk associated with parental divorce, it does not eliminate it entirely, supporting the idea of a causal link.
A significant body of research indicates that various factors mediate the link between parental divorce and children’s mental health, such as less effective parenting, interparental conflict, economic difficulties, and limited contact with one parent, usually the father (listed in order of decreasing effect size). Marital instability is not just a single risk factor but rather a series of consequences that can affect children’s well-being.
Various factors, including individual, family, ethnic, and cultural differences, can moderate the risks associated with changes in children’s family structure, highlighting the need to acknowledge and appreciate family diversity. For instance, in the United States, parental separation is linked with greater socioemotional difficulties in white children than in black or Hispanic children. Factors such as acceptance of non-traditional family structures and extended family support may contribute to such ethnic differences.
Having a thorough understanding of family change and its implications is essential for healthcare professionals in various settings. Physicians who provide care to children may observe signs that indicate family instability, be approached for assistance in helping children navigate family transitions, or deal with parental disagreements concerning their child’s health and treatment. Similarly, schools may face comparable opportunities and challenges.
Children and adult offspring of divorced or separated parents are disproportionately represented in the mental health care system. The majority of mental health interventions aim to address the known mediators of risk, including parenting issues and family conflict. Evidence suggests that structured interventions that provide parenting support and education can help reduce children’s psychological distress. Regrettably, only a limited number of mental health interventions for families going through divorce or separation have been thoroughly examined.
Separation or divorce also brings up legal issues related to the welfare and custody of children. The prevailing custody standard is the “best interests of the children,” which is generally interpreted from a psychological standpoint rather than an economic one. Mental health experts and other professionals may become involved as expert witnesses in custody disputes, whether they choose to do so or not. Alternatively, some professionals advocate for or provide alternative forms of dispute resolution, such as mediation.
Mediation is a process where neutral third parties help separated parents to settle disputes on their own. Apart from dispute resolution, mediation has the potential to benefit children by reducing conflict, enhancing parenting, and encouraging both parents to remain involved in their children’s lives. One 12-year follow-up randomized trial showed that mediation produced all of these outcomes when compared to litigation. Another randomized study revealed that involving children in the process led to better mediation outcomes.
Although early results of interventions such as mediation are promising, it is important to subject them to rigorous study, as well-intentioned services may have no effect or may even be harmful for some individuals, while wasting limited resources.
Mental health professionals have a crucial role to play in providing guidance to parents and influencing law and policy regarding family law. One contentious issue is whether to promote joint physical custody, which involves sharing 25-50% of parenting time, and under what circumstances. Joint legal custody, which involves sharing important decisions like elective medical care, has become more prevalent. Although it still represents a minority of separated families (ranging from 15 to 50% across countries), it has increased in the US and many Western countries. Fathers’ groups are currently advocating for a presumption of universal 50/50 shared time. It is important to carefully consider the evidence and potential consequences before making policy decisions on this matter.
Although shared custody can benefit many families, experts are concerned that a universal presumption of 50/50 shared time may not be the right solution for all parents, especially the 10% or fewer who contest custody in court. Experts are also concerned about issues such as extensive time away from attachment figures for young children, excessive travel demands on children, whether shared time should be exactly 50/50, and whether some mental health or personality issues may make shared custody less effective. These concerns must be taken into account when considering the promotion of joint physical custody.